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# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
# Copyright (C) YEAR Free Software Foundation, Inc.
# This file is distributed under the same license as the PACKAGE package.
# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
#
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: PACKAGE VERSION\n"
"POT-Creation-Date: 2015-03-10 11:05+0100\n"
"PO-Revision-Date: 2015-10-06 21:18+0100\n"
"Last-Translator: Amaury Jacques <amj@linuxfromscratch.org>\n"
"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
"X-Generator: Poedit 1.5.5\n"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect1info><address>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:14
#, no-wrap
msgid "&shadow-url;"
msgstr "&shadow-url;"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect1info>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:12
msgid "<productname>shadow</productname> <productnumber>&shadow-version;</productnumber> <placeholder type=\"address\" id=\"0\"/>"
msgstr "<productname>shadow</productname> <productnumber>&shadow-version;</productnumber> <placeholder type=\"address\" id=\"0\"/>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><title>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:17
msgid "Shadow-&shadow-version;"
msgstr "Shadow-&shadow-version;"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:20 lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:123
msgid "Shadow"
msgstr "Shadow"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:26
msgid "The Shadow package contains programs for handling passwords in a secure way."
msgstr "Le paquet Shadow contient des programmes de gestion de mots de passe d'une façon sécurisée."

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><segtitle>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:30
msgid "&buildtime;"
msgstr "&buildtime;"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><segtitle>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:31
msgid "&diskspace;"
msgstr "&diskspace;"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><seglistitem><seg>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:34
msgid "&shadow-ch6-sbu;"
msgstr "&shadow-ch6-sbu;"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><seglistitem><seg>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:35
msgid "&shadow-ch6-du;"
msgstr "&shadow-ch6-du;"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><title>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:42
msgid "Installation of Shadow"
msgstr "Installation de Shadow"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:45
msgid "If you would like to enforce the use of strong passwords, refer to <ulink url=\"&blfs-book;postlfs/cracklib.html\"/> for installing CrackLib prior to building Shadow. Then add <parameter>--with-libcrack</parameter> to the <command>configure</command> command below."
msgstr "Si vous aimeriez multiplier l'usage des mots de passe efficaces, reportez-vous à <ulink url=\"&blfs-root;postlfs/cracklib.html\"/> pour l'installation de CrackLib avant de compiler Shadow. Puis ajoutez <parameter>--with-libcrack</parameter> à la commande <command>configure</command> ci-dessous."

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:52
msgid "Disable the installation of the <command>groups</command> program and its man pages, as Coreutils provides a better version:"
msgstr "Désactivez l'installation du programme <command>groups</command> et de sa page man car Coreutils fournit une meilleure version&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:55
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<userinput remap=\"pre\">sed -i 's/groups$(EXEEXT) //' src/Makefile.in\n"
"find man -name Makefile.in -exec sed -i 's/groups\\.1 / /' {} \\;</userinput>"
msgstr ""
"<userinput remap=\"pre\">sed -i 's/groups$(EXEEXT) //' src/Makefile.in\n"
"find man -name Makefile.in -exec sed -i 's/groups\\.1 / /' {} \\;</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:58
msgid "Instead of using the default <emphasis>crypt</emphasis> method, use the more secure <emphasis>SHA-512</emphasis> method of password encryption, which also allows passwords longer than 8 characters. It is also necessary to change the obsolete <filename class=\"directory\">/var/spool/mail</filename> location for user mailboxes that Shadow uses by default to the <filename class=\"directory\">/var/mail</filename> location used currently:"
msgstr "Au lieu d'utiliser la méthode <emphasis>crypt</emphasis> par défaut, utilisez la méthode <emphasis>SHA-512</emphasis> plus sécurisée du chiffrement de mot de passe, qui autorise aussi les mots de passe plus longs que huit caractères. Il est également nécessaire de changer l'endroit obsolète de <filename class=\"directory\">/var/spool/mail</filename> pour les boîtes e-mail de l'utilisateur que Shadow utilise par défaut en l'endroit <filename class=\"directory\">/var/mail</filename> utilisé actuellement&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:66
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<userinput remap=\"configure\">sed -i -e 's@#ENCRYPT_METHOD DES@ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512@' \\\n"
"       -e 's@/var/spool/mail@/var/mail@' etc/login.defs</userinput>"
msgstr ""
"<userinput remap=\"configure\">sed -i -e 's@#ENCRYPT_METHOD DES@ENCRYPT_METHOD SHA512@' \\\n"
"       -e 's@/var/spool/mail@/var/mail@' etc/login.defs</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:70
msgid "If you chose to build Shadow with Cracklib support, run the following:"
msgstr "Si vous compilez Shadow avec le support pour Cracklib, lancez ce qui suit&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><note><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:72
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>sed -i 's@DICTPATH.*@DICTPATH\\t/lib/cracklib/pw_dict@' etc/login.defs</userinput>"
msgstr ""
"<userinput>sed -i 's@DICTPATH.*@DICTPATH\\t/lib/cracklib/pw_dict@' \\\n"
"      etc/login.defs</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:75
msgid "Make a minor change to make the default useradd consistent with the LFS groups file:"
msgstr "Faites un petit changement pour qu'useradd soit cohérent avec le fichier groups de LFS&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:78
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput remap=\"pre\">sed -i 's/1000/999/' etc/useradd</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput remap=\"pre\">sed -i 's/1000/999/' etc/useradd</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:80
msgid "Prepare Shadow for compilation:"
msgstr "Préparez la compilation de Shadow&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:82
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput remap=\"configure\">./configure --sysconfdir=/etc --with-group-name-max-length=32</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput remap=\"configure\">./configure --sysconfdir=/etc --with-group-name-max-length=32</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><title>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:85
msgid "The meaning of the configure option:"
msgstr "Voici la signification de l'option de configuration&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:88
msgid "<parameter>--with-group-name-max-length=32</parameter>"
msgstr "<parameter>--with-group-name-max-length=32</parameter>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:90
msgid "The maximum user name is 32 characters.  Make the maximum group name the same."
msgstr "La longueur maximum d'un nom d'utilisateur est de 32 caractères.  Règle un plafond similaire pour les noms de groupes."

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:97
msgid "Compile the package:"
msgstr "Compilez le paquet&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:99
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput remap=\"make\">make</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput remap=\"make\">make</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:101
msgid "This package does not come with a test suite."
msgstr "Ce paquet n'est pas fourni avec une suite de tests."

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:103
msgid "Install the package:"
msgstr "Installez le paquet&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:105
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput remap=\"install\">make install</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput remap=\"install\">make install</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:107
msgid "Move a misplaced program to its proper location:"
msgstr "Déplacez un programme mal placé au bon endroit&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:109
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput remap=\"install\">mv -v /usr/bin/passwd /bin</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput remap=\"install\">mv -v /usr/bin/passwd /bin</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><title>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:120
msgid "Configuring Shadow"
msgstr "Configuration de Shadow"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><indexterm><secondary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:124
msgid "configuring"
msgstr "configuration"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:127
msgid "This package contains utilities to add, modify, and delete users and groups; set and change their passwords; and perform other administrative tasks. For a full explanation of what <emphasis>password shadowing</emphasis> means, see the <filename>doc/HOWTO</filename> file within the unpacked source tree. If using Shadow support, keep in mind that programs which need to verify passwords (display managers, FTP programs, pop3 daemons, etc.)  must be Shadow-compliant. That is, they need to be able to work with shadowed passwords."
msgstr "Ce paquet contient des outils pour ajouter, modifier, supprimer des utilisateurs et des groupes, initialiser et changer leur mot de passe, et bien d'autres tâches administratives. Pour une explication complète de ce que signifie <emphasis>password shadowing</emphasis>, jetez un &oelig;il dans le fichier <filename>doc/HOWTO</filename> à l'intérieur du répertoire source. Il reste une chose à garder à l'esprit si vous décidez d'utiliser le support de Shadow&nbsp;: les programmes qui ont besoin de vérifier les mots de passe (gestionnaires d'affichage, programmes FTP, démons pop3 et ainsi de suite) ont besoin d'être <emphasis>compatibles avec shadow</emphasis>, c'est-à-dire qu'ils ont besoin d'être capables de fonctionner avec des mots de passe shadow."

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:136
msgid "To enable shadowed passwords, run the following command:"
msgstr "Pour activer les mots de passe shadow, lancez la commande suivante&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:138
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>pwconv</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput>pwconv</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:140
msgid "To enable shadowed group passwords, run:"
msgstr "Pour activer les mots de passe shadow pour les groupes, lancez&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:142
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>grpconv</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput>grpconv</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:144
msgid "Shadow's stock configuration for the <command>useradd</command> utility has a few caveats that need some explanation. First, the default action for the <command>useradd</command> utility is to create the user and a group of the same name as the user. By default the user ID (UID) and group ID (GID) numbers will begin with 1000. This means if you don't pass parameters to <command>useradd</command>, each user will be a member of a unique group on the system. If this behaviour is undesirable, you'll need to pass the <parameter>-g</parameter> parameter to <command>useradd</command>. The default parameters are stored in the <filename>/etc/default/useradd</filename> file. You may need to modify two parameters in this file to suit your particular needs."
msgstr "La configuration fournie avec Shadow pour l'outil présente quelques inconvénients qui appellent quelques explications. D'abord, l'action par défaut de l'outil <command>useradd</command> est de créer un utilisateur et un groupe du même nom que l'utilisateur. Par défaut les numéros d'ID utilisateur (UID) et d'ID de groupe (GID) commenceront à 1000. Cela signifie que si vous ne passez pas de paramètres à <command>useradd</command>, chaque utilisateur sera membre d'un groupe unique sur le système. Si vous ne désirez pas ce comportement, vous devrez passer le paramètre <parameter>-g</parameter> à <command>useradd</command>. Les paramètres par défaut sont stockés dans fichier <filename>/etc/default/useradd</filename>. Il se peut que vous deviez modifier deux paramètres dans ce fichier pour satisfaire vos besoins particuliers."

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><title>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:157
msgid "<filename>/etc/default/useradd</filename> Parameter Explanations"
msgstr "<filename>/etc/default/useradd</filename> Explication de parametres"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:160
msgid "<parameter>GROUP=1000</parameter>"
msgstr "<parameter>GROUP=1000</parameter>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:162
msgid "This parameter sets the beginning of the group numbers used in the /etc/group file. You can modify it to anything you desire. Note that <command>useradd</command> will never reuse a UID or GID. If the number identified in this parameter is used, it will use the next available number after this. Note also that if you don't have a group 1000 on your system the first time you use <command>useradd</command> without the <parameter>-g</parameter> parameter, you'll get a message displayed on the terminal that says: <computeroutput>useradd: unknown GID 1000</computeroutput>. You may disregard this message and group number 1000 will be used."
msgstr "Ce paramètre initialise le début des numéros de groupe utilisés dans le fichier /etc/group. Vous pouvez le modifier avec ce que vous désirez. Remarquez que <command>useradd</command> ne réutilisera jamais un UID ou un GID. Si le numéro identifié dans ce paramètre est utilisé, il utilisera le numéro disponible suivant celui-ci. Remarquez aussi que si vous n'avez pas de groupe 1000 sur votre système la première fois que vous utilisez <command>useradd</command> sans le paramètre <parameter>-g</parameter>, vous obtiendrez un message sur le terminal qui dit&nbsp;: <computeroutput>useradd: unknown GID 1000</computeroutput>. Vous pouvez passer ce message et le numéro de groupe 1000 sera utilisé."

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:175
msgid "<parameter>CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes</parameter>"
msgstr "<parameter>CREATE_MAIL_SPOOL=yes</parameter>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:177
msgid "This parameter causes <command>useradd</command> to create a mailbox file for the newly created user. <command>useradd</command> will make the group ownership of this file to the <systemitem class=\"groupname\">mail</systemitem> group with 0660 permissions. If you would prefer that these mailbox files are not created by <command>useradd</command>, issue the following command:"
msgstr "Il résulte de ce paramètre que <command>useradd</command> crée un fichier de boîte mail pour le nouvel utilisateur créé.  <command>useradd</command> rendra le groupe <systemitem class=\"groupname\">mail</systemitem> propriétaire de ce fichier avec les droits 0660. Si vous préféreriez que <command>useradd</command> ne crée pas ces fichiers de boîte mail, lancez la commande suivante&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:185
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>sed -i 's/yes/no/' /etc/default/useradd</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput>sed -i 's/yes/no/' /etc/default/useradd</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><title>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:195
msgid "Setting the root password"
msgstr "Configurer le mot de passe de root"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:197
msgid "Choose a password for user <emphasis>root</emphasis> and set it by running:"
msgstr "Choisissez un mot de passe pour l'utilisateur <emphasis>root</emphasis> et configurez-le avec&nbsp;:"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><screen>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:200
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>passwd root</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput>passwd root</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><title>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:205
msgid "Contents of Shadow"
msgstr "Contenu de Shadow"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><segtitle>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:208
msgid "Installed programs"
msgstr "Programmes installés"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><segtitle>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:209
msgid "Installed directory"
msgstr "Répertoire installé"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><seglistitem><seg>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:212
msgid "chage, chfn, chgpasswd, chpasswd, chsh, expiry, faillog, gpasswd, groupadd, groupdel, groupmems, groupmod, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv, lastlog, login, logoutd, newgrp, newusers, nologin, passwd, pwck, pwconv, pwunconv, sg (link to newgrp), su, useradd, userdel, usermod, vigr (link to vipw), and vipw"
msgstr "chage, chfn, chgpasswd, chpasswd, chsh, expiry, faillog, gpasswd, groupadd, groupdel, groupmems, groupmod, grpck, grpconv, grpunconv, lastlog, login, logoutd, newgrp, newusers, nologin, passwd, pwck, pwconv, pwunconv, sg (lien vers newgrp), su, useradd, userdel, usermod, vigr (lien vers vipw) et vipw"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><segmentedlist><seglistitem><seg>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:217
msgid "/etc/default"
msgstr "/etc/default"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><bridgehead>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:222
msgid "Short Descriptions"
msgstr "Descriptions courtes"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:227
msgid "<command>chage</command>"
msgstr "<command>chage</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:229
msgid "Used to change the maximum number of days between obligatory password changes"
msgstr "Utilisé pour modifier le nombre maximum de jours entre des modifications obligatoires du mot de passe"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:232
msgid "chage"
msgstr "chage"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:238
msgid "<command>chfn</command>"
msgstr "<command>chfn</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:240
msgid "Used to change a user's full name and other information"
msgstr "Utilisé pour modifier le nom complet de l'utilisateur et quelques autres informations"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:242
msgid "chfn"
msgstr "chfn"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:248
msgid "<command>chgpasswd</command>"
msgstr "<command>chgpasswd</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:250
msgid "Used to update group passwords in batch mode"
msgstr "Utilisé pour mettre à jour des mots de passe en mode ligne de commande (batch)"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:252
msgid "chgpasswd"
msgstr "chgpasswd"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:258
msgid "<command>chpasswd</command>"
msgstr "<command>chpasswd</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:260
msgid "Used to update user passwords in batch mode"
msgstr "Utilisée pour mettre à jour les mots de passe utilisateur en ligne de commande"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:262
msgid "chpasswd"
msgstr "chpasswd"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:268
msgid "<command>chsh</command>"
msgstr "<command>chsh</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:270
msgid "Used to change a user's default login shell"
msgstr "Utilisé pour modifier le shell de connexion par défaut d'un utilisateur"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:272
msgid "chsh"
msgstr "chsh"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:278
msgid "<command>expiry</command>"
msgstr "<command>expiry</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:280
msgid "Checks and enforces the current password expiration policy"
msgstr "Vérifie et renforce la politique d'expiration des mots de passe"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:282
msgid "expiry"
msgstr "expiry"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:288
msgid "<command>faillog</command>"
msgstr "<command>faillog</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:290
msgid "Is used to examine the log of login failures, to set a maximum number of failures before an account is blocked, or to reset the failure count"
msgstr "Est utilisé pour examiner les traces d'échecs de connexions, pour configurer le nombre maximum d'échecs avant qu'un compte ne soit bloqué ou pour réinitialiser le nombre d'échecs"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:294
msgid "faillog"
msgstr "faillog"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:300
msgid "<command>gpasswd</command>"
msgstr "<command>gpasswd</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:302
msgid "Is used to add and delete members and administrators to groups"
msgstr "Est utilisé pour ajouter et supprimer des membres et des administrateurs aux groupes"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:305
msgid "gpasswd"
msgstr "gpasswd"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:311
msgid "<command>groupadd</command>"
msgstr "<command>groupadd</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:313
msgid "Creates a group with the given name"
msgstr "Crée un groupe avec le nom donné"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:315
msgid "groupadd"
msgstr "groupadd"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:321
msgid "<command>groupdel</command>"
msgstr "<command>groupdel</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:323
msgid "Deletes the group with the given name"
msgstr "Supprime le groupe ayant le nom donné"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:325
msgid "groupdel"
msgstr "groupdel"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:331
msgid "<command>groupmems</command>"
msgstr "<command>groupmems</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:333
msgid "Allows a user to administer his/her own group membership list without the requirement of super user privileges."
msgstr "Permet à un utilisateur d'administrer la liste des membres de son groupe sans avoir besoin des privilèges du super utilisateur"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:336
msgid "groupmems"
msgstr "groupmems"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:342
msgid "<command>groupmod</command>"
msgstr "<command>groupmod</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:344
msgid "Is used to modify the given group's name or GID"
msgstr "Est utilisé pour modifier le nom ou le GID du groupe"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:346
msgid "groupmod"
msgstr "groupmod"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:352
msgid "<command>grpck</command>"
msgstr "<command>grpck</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:354
msgid "Verifies the integrity of the group files <filename>/etc/group</filename> and <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename>"
msgstr "Vérifie l'intégrité des fichiers <filename>/etc/group</filename> et <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:358
msgid "grpck"
msgstr "grpck"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:364
msgid "<command>grpconv</command>"
msgstr "<command>grpconv</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:366
msgid "Creates or updates the shadow group file from the normal group file"
msgstr "Crée ou met à jour le fichier shadow à partir du fichier group standard"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:369
msgid "grpconv"
msgstr "grpconv"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:375
msgid "<command>grpunconv</command>"
msgstr "<command>grpunconv</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:377
msgid "Updates <filename>/etc/group</filename> from <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename> and then deletes the latter"
msgstr "Met à jour <filename>/etc/group</filename> à partir de <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename> puis supprime ce dernier"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:380
msgid "grpunconv"
msgstr "grpunconv"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:386
msgid "<command>lastlog</command>"
msgstr "<command>lastlog</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:388
msgid "Reports the most recent login of all users or of a given user"
msgstr "Indique les connexions les plus récentes de tous les utilisateurs ou d'un utilisateur donné"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:391
msgid "lastlog"
msgstr "lastlog"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:397
msgid "<command>login</command>"
msgstr "<command>login</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:399
msgid "Is used by the system to let users sign on"
msgstr "Est utilisé par le système pour permettre aux utilisateurs de se connecter"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:401
msgid "login"
msgstr "login"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:407
msgid "<command>logoutd</command>"
msgstr "<command>logoutd</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:409
msgid "Is a daemon used to enforce restrictions on log-on time and ports"
msgstr "Est un démon utilisé pour renforcer les restrictions sur les temps et ports de connexion"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:412
msgid "logoutd"
msgstr "logoutd"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:418
msgid "<command>newgrp</command>"
msgstr "<command>newgrp</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:420
msgid "Is used to change the current GID during a login session"
msgstr "Est utilisé pour modifier le GID courant pendant une session de connexion"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:422
msgid "newgrp"
msgstr "newgrp"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:428
msgid "<command>newusers</command>"
msgstr "<command>newusers</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:430
msgid "Is used to create or update an entire series of user accounts"
msgstr "Est utilisé pour créer ou mettre à jour toute une série de comptes utilisateur en une fois"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:433
msgid "newusers"
msgstr "newusers"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:439
msgid "<command>nologin</command>"
msgstr "<command>nologin</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:441
msgid "Displays a message that an account is not available; it is designed to be used as the default shell for accounts that have been disabled"
msgstr "Affiche un message selon lequel un compte n'est pas disponible.  Destiné à être utilisé comme shell par défaut pour des comptes qui ont été désactivés"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:445
msgid "nologin"
msgstr "nologin"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:451
msgid "<command>passwd</command>"
msgstr "<command>passwd</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:453
msgid "Is used to change the password for a user or group account"
msgstr "Est utilisé pour modifier le mot de passe d'un utilisateur ou d'un groupe"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:455
msgid "passwd"
msgstr "passwd"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:461
msgid "<command>pwck</command>"
msgstr "<command>pwck</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:463
msgid "Verifies the integrity of the password files <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> and <filename>/etc/shadow</filename>"
msgstr "Vérifie l'intégrité des fichiers de mots de passe, <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> et <filename>/etc/shadow</filename>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:467
msgid "pwck"
msgstr "pwck"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:473
msgid "<command>pwconv</command>"
msgstr "<command>pwconv</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:475
msgid "Creates or updates the shadow password file from the normal password file"
msgstr "Crée ou met à jour le fichier de mots de passe shadow à partir du fichier password habituel"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:478
msgid "pwconv"
msgstr "pwconv"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:484
msgid "<command>pwunconv</command>"
msgstr "<command>pwunconv</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:486
msgid "Updates <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> from <filename>/etc/shadow</filename> and then deletes the latter"
msgstr "Met à jour <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> à partir de <filename>/etc/shadow</filename> puis supprime ce dernier"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:489
msgid "pwunconv"
msgstr "pwunconv"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:495
msgid "<command>sg</command>"
msgstr "<command>sg</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:497
msgid "Executes a given command while the user's GID is set to that of the given group"
msgstr "Exécute une commande donnée lors de l'initialisation du GID de l'utilisateur à un groupe donné"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:500
msgid "sg"
msgstr "sg"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:506
msgid "<command>su</command>"
msgstr "<command>su</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:508
msgid "Runs a shell with substitute user and group IDs"
msgstr "Lance un shell en substituant les ID de l'utilisateur et du groupe"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:510
msgid "su"
msgstr "su"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:516
msgid "<command>useradd</command>"
msgstr "<command>useradd</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:518
msgid "Creates a new user with the given name, or updates the default new-user information"
msgstr "Crée un nouvel utilisateur avec le nom donné ou met à jour les informations par défaut du nouvel utilisateur"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:521
msgid "useradd"
msgstr "useradd"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:527
msgid "<command>userdel</command>"
msgstr "<command>userdel</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:529
msgid "Deletes the given user account"
msgstr "Supprime le compte utilisateur indiqué"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:531
msgid "userdel"
msgstr "userdel"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:537
msgid "<command>usermod</command>"
msgstr "<command>usermod</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:539
msgid "Is used to modify the given user's login name, User Identification (UID), shell, initial group, home directory, etc."
msgstr "Est utilisé pour modifier le nom de connexion de l'utilisateur, son UID (<foreignphrase>User Identification</foreignphrase>, soit Identification Utilisateur), shell, groupe initial, répertoire personnel et ainsi de suite"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:542
msgid "usermod"
msgstr "usermod"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:548
msgid "<command>vigr</command>"
msgstr "<command>vigr</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:550
msgid "Edits the <filename>/etc/group</filename> or <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename> files"
msgstr "Édite les fichiers <filename>/etc/group</filename> ou <filename>/etc/gshadow</filename>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:553
msgid "vigr"
msgstr "vigr"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:559
msgid "<command>vipw</command>"
msgstr "<command>vipw</command>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:561
msgid "Edits the <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> or <filename>/etc/shadow</filename> files"
msgstr "Édite les fichiers <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> ou <filename>/etc/shadow</filename>"

#. type: Content of: <sect1><sect2><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><indexterm><primary>
#: lfs-en/chapter06/shadow.xml:564
msgid "vipw"
msgstr "vipw"