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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
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<!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.3//EN" "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.3/docbookx.dtd" [
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  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
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  %general-entities;
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]>
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<sect1 id="ch-system-glibc" xreflabel="Glibc">
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<title>Glibc-&glibc-version;</title>
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<?dbhtml filename="glibc.html"?>
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<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc"><primary sortas="a-Glibc">Glibc</primary></indexterm>
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<para>The Glibc package contains the main C library. This library provides all
13
the basic routines for allocating memory, searching directories, opening and
14
closing files, reading and writing them, string handling, pattern matching,
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arithmetic, and so on.</para>
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<screen>&buildtime; 12.3 SBU
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&diskspace; 784 MB</screen>
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<para>Glibc installation depends on: Bash, Binutils, Coreutils, Diffutils,
21
Gawk, GCC, Gettext, Grep, Make, Perl, Sed, Texinfo.</para>
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23
 
24
 
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<sect2>
26
<title>Installation of Glibc</title>
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<para>The Glibc build system is very well self-contained and will install
29
perfectly, even though our compiler specs file and linker are still pointing
30
at <filename>/tools</filename>. We cannot adjust the specs and linker before
31
the Glibc install, because the Glibc autoconf tests would then give bogus
32
results and thus defeat our goal of achieving a clean build.</para>
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<para>Before starting to build Glibc, remember to unset any environment
35
variables that override the default optimization flags.</para>
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<para>The Glibc documentation recommends building Glibc outside of the source
38
directory in a dedicated build directory:</para>
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40
<screen><userinput>mkdir ../glibc-build
41
cd ../glibc-build</userinput></screen>
42
 
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<para>Now prepare Glibc for compilation:</para>
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45
<screen><userinput>../glibc-&glibc-version;/configure --prefix=/usr \
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    --disable-profile --enable-add-ons=linuxthreads \
47
    --libexecdir=/usr/lib --with-headers=/usr/include \
48
    --without-cvs</userinput></screen>
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<para>The meaning of the new configure options:</para>
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52
<itemizedlist>
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<listitem><para><userinput>--libexecdir=/usr/lib</userinput>: This changes the
54
location of the <filename>pt_chown</filename> program from its default of
55
<filename class="directory">/usr/libexec</filename> to
56
<filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>. The use of
57
<emphasis>libexec</emphasis> is considered not to be FHS-compliant because the
58
FHS doesn't even mention it.</para></listitem>
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<listitem><para><userinput>--with-headers=/usr/include</userinput>: This
61
ensures that the kernel headers in <filename>/usr/include</filename> are used
62
for this build. If you don't pass this switch then the headers from
63
<filename>/tools/include</filename> are used which of course is not ideal
64
(although they should be identical). Using this switch has the advantage
65
that you will be informed immediately should you have forgotten to install the
66
kernel headers into <filename>/usr/include</filename>.</para></listitem>
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</itemizedlist>
68
 
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<para>Compile the package:</para>
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71
<screen><userinput>make</userinput></screen>
72
 
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<important><para>The test suite for Glibc in this section is considered
74
<emphasis>critical</emphasis>. Our advice is to not skip it under any
75
circumstance.</para></important>
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<para>Test the results:</para>
78
 
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<screen><userinput>make check</userinput></screen>
80
 
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<para>The test suite notes from <xref linkend="ch-tools-glibc"/> are still very much
82
appropriate here. Be sure to refer back there should you have any doubts.</para>
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<para>Though it is a harmless message, the install stage of Glibc will
85
complain about the absence of <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename>. Fix this
86
annoying little warning with:</para>
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<screen><userinput>touch /etc/ld.so.conf</userinput></screen>
89
 
90
<para>And install the package:</para>
91
 
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<screen><userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
93
 
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<para>The locales that can make your system respond in a different language
95
weren't installed by the above command. Do it with this:</para>
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97
<screen><userinput>make localedata/install-locales</userinput></screen>
98
 
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<para>An alternative to running the previous command is to install only those
100
locales which you need or want. This can be achieved by using the
101
<command>localedef</command> command. Information on this can be found in
102
the <filename>INSTALL</filename> file in the Glibc source. However, there are
103
a number of locales that are essential for the tests of future packages to
104
pass, in particular, the <emphasis>libstdc++</emphasis> tests from GCC. The
105
following instructions, instead of the install-locales target above, will
106
install the minimum set of locales necessary for the tests to run
107
successfully:</para>
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109
<screen><userinput>mkdir -p /usr/lib/locale
110
localedef -i de_DE -f ISO-8859-1 de_DE
111
localedef -i de_DE@euro -f ISO-8859-15 de_DE@euro
112
localedef -i en_HK -f ISO-8859-1 en_HK
113
localedef -i en_PH -f ISO-8859-1 en_PH
114
localedef -i en_US -f ISO-8859-1 en_US
115
localedef -i es_MX -f ISO-8859-1 es_MX
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localedef -i fa_IR -f UTF-8 fa_IR
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localedef -i fr_FR -f ISO-8859-1 fr_FR
118
localedef -i fr_FR@euro -f ISO-8859-15 fr_FR@euro
119
localedef -i it_IT -f ISO-8859-1 it_IT
120
localedef -i ja_JP -f EUC-JP ja_JP</userinput></screen>
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<para>Finally, build the linuxthreads man pages:</para>
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<screen><userinput>make -C ../glibc-&glibc-version;/linuxthreads/man</userinput></screen>
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<para>And install these pages:</para>
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<screen><userinput>make -C ../glibc-&glibc-version;/linuxthreads/man install</userinput></screen>
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130
</sect2>
131
 
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<sect2 id="conf-glibc"><title>Configuring Glibc</title>
134
<indexterm zone="conf-glibc"><primary sortas="e-/etc/nsswitch.conf">/etc/nsswitch.conf</primary></indexterm>
135
<indexterm zone="conf-glibc"><primary sortas="e-/etc/localtime">/etc/localtime</primary></indexterm>
136
 
137
<para>We need to create the <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> file,
138
because, although Glibc provides defaults when this file is missing or corrupt,
139
the Glibc defaults don't work well with networking. Also, our time zone needs
140
to be set up.</para>
141
 
142
<para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/nsswitch.conf</filename> by running the
143
following:</para>
144
 
145
<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/nsswitch.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"</userinput>
146
# Begin /etc/nsswitch.conf
147
 
148
passwd: files
149
group: files
150
shadow: files
151
 
152
hosts: files dns
153
networks: files
154
 
155
protocols: files
156
services: files
157
ethers: files
158
rpc: files
159
 
160
# End /etc/nsswitch.conf
161
<userinput>EOF</userinput></screen>
162
 
163
<para>To find out what time zone you're in, run the following script:</para>
164
 
165
<screen><userinput>tzselect</userinput></screen>
166
 
167
<para>When you've answered a few questions about your location, the script will
168
output the name of your time zone, something like <emphasis>EST5EDT</emphasis>
169
or <emphasis>Canada/Eastern</emphasis>. Then create the
170
<filename>/etc/localtime</filename> file by running:</para>
171
 
172
<screen><userinput>cp --remove-destination /usr/share/zoneinfo/Canada/Eastern /etc/localtime</userinput></screen>
173
 
174
<para>The meaning of the option:</para>
175
 
176
<itemizedlist>
177
<listitem><para><userinput>--remove-destination</userinput>: This is needed to
178
force removal of the already existing symbolic link. The reason why we copy
179
instead of symlink is to cover the situation where <filename>/usr</filename> is
180
on a separate partition. This could matter, for example, when booted into single
181
user mode.</para></listitem>
182
</itemizedlist>
183
 
184
<para>Of course, instead of <emphasis>Canada/Eastern</emphasis>, fill in
185
the name of the time zone that the <command>tzselect</command> script
186
gave you.</para>
187
 
188
</sect2>
189
 
190
 
191
<sect2 id="conf-ld">
192
<title>Configuring Dynamic Loader</title>
193
<indexterm zone="conf-ld"><primary sortas="e-/etc/ld.so.conf">/etc/ld.so.conf</primary></indexterm>
194
 
195
<para>By default, the dynamic loader
196
(<filename>/lib/ld-linux.so.2</filename>) searches through <filename 
197
class="directory">/lib</filename> and <filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>
198
for dynamic libraries that are needed
199
by programs when you run them. However, if there are libraries in
200
directories other than <filename class="directory">/lib</filename> and
201
<filename class="directory">/usr/lib</filename>, you need to add them to
202
the <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> file for the dynamic
203
loader to find them. Two directories that are commonly known to contain
204
additional libraries are <filename class="directory">/usr/local/lib</filename>
205
and <filename class="directory">/opt/lib</filename>, so we add those directories to the
206
dynamic loader's search path.</para>
207
 
208
<para>Create a new file <filename>/etc/ld.so.conf</filename> by running the
209
following:</para>
210
 
211
<screen><userinput>cat &gt; /etc/ld.so.conf &lt;&lt; "EOF"</userinput>
212
# Begin /etc/ld.so.conf
213
 
214
/usr/local/lib
215
/opt/lib
216
 
217
# End /etc/ld.so.conf
218
<userinput>EOF</userinput></screen>
219
 
220
</sect2>
221
 
222
 
223
<sect2 id="contents-glibc"><title>Contents of Glibc</title>
224
 
225
<para><emphasis>Installed programs</emphasis>: catchsegv, gencat, getconf,
226
getent, glibcbug, iconv, iconvconfig, ldconfig, ldd, lddlibc4, locale,
227
localedef, mtrace, nscd, nscd_nischeck, pcprofiledump, pt_chown, rpcgen,
228
rpcinfo, sln, sprof, tzselect, xtrace, zdump and zic</para>
229
 
230
<para><emphasis>Installed libraries</emphasis>: ld.so, libBrokenLocale.[a,so],
231
libSegFault.so, libanl.[a,so], libbsd-compat.a, libc.[a,so], libc_nonshared.a,
232
libcrypt.[a,so], libdl.[a,so], libg.a, libieee.a, libm.[a,so], libmcheck.a,
233
libmemusage.so, libnsl.a, libnss_compat.so, libnss_dns.so, libnss_files.so,
234
libnss_hesiod.so, libnss_nis.so, libnss_nisplus.so, libpcprofile.so,
235
libpthread.[a,so], libresolv.[a,so], librpcsvc.a, librt.[a,so], libthread_db.so
236
and libutil.[a,so]</para>
237
 
238
</sect2>
239
 
240
 
241
<sect2><title>Short descriptions</title>
242
 
243
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc catchsegv"><primary sortas="b-catchsegv">catchsegv</primary></indexterm>
244
<para id="catchsegv"><command>catchsegv</command> can be used to create a stack trace
245
when a program terminates with a segmentation fault.</para>
246
 
247
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc gencat"><primary sortas="b-gencat">gencat</primary></indexterm>
248
<para id="gencat"><command>gencat</command> generates message catalogues.</para>
249
 
250
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getconf"><primary sortas="b-getconf">getconf</primary></indexterm>
251
<para id="getconf"><command>getconf</command> displays the system configuration values
252
for file system specific variables.</para>
253
 
254
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc getent"><primary sortas="b-getent">getent</primary></indexterm>
255
<para id="getent"><command>getent</command> gets entries from an administrative
256
database.</para>
257
 
258
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc glibcbug"><primary sortas="b-glibcbug">glibcbug</primary></indexterm>
259
<para id="glibcbug"><command>glibcbug</command> creates a bug report and mails it to the
260
bug email address.</para>
261
 
262
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconv"><primary sortas="b-iconv">iconv</primary></indexterm>
263
<para id="iconv"><command>iconv</command> performs character set conversion.</para>
264
 
265
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc iconvconfig"><primary sortas="b-iconvconfig">iconvconfig</primary></indexterm>
266
<para id="iconvconfig"><command>iconvconfig</command> creates fastloading iconv module
267
configuration file.</para>
268
 
269
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldconfig"><primary sortas="b-ldconfig">ldconfig</primary></indexterm>
270
<para id="ldconfig"><command>ldconfig</command> configures the dynamic linker runtime
271
bindings.</para>
272
 
273
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ldd"><primary sortas="b-ldd">ldd</primary></indexterm>
274
<para id="ldd"><command>ldd</command> reports which shared libraries are required
275
by each given program or shared library.</para>
276
 
277
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc lddlibc4"><primary sortas="b-lddlibc4">lddlibc4</primary></indexterm>
278
<para id="lddlibc4"><command>lddlibc4</command> assists ldd with object files.</para>
279
 
280
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc locale"><primary sortas="b-locale">locale</primary></indexterm>
281
<para id="locale"><command>locale</command> is a Perl program that tells the compiler
282
to enable or disable the use of POSIX locales for built-in operations.</para>
283
 
284
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc localedef"><primary sortas="b-localedef">localedef</primary></indexterm>
285
<para id="localedef"><command>localedef</command> compiles locale specifications.</para>
286
 
287
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc mtrace"><primary sortas="b-mtrace">mtrace</primary></indexterm>
288
<para id="mtrace"><command>mtrace</command>...</para>
289
 
290
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc nscd"><primary sortas="b-nscd">nscd</primary></indexterm>
291
<para id="nscd"><command>nscd</command> is a name service cache daemon providing a
292
cache for the most common name service requests.</para>
293
 
294
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc nscd_nischeck"><primary sortas="b-nscd_nischeck">nscd_nischeck</primary></indexterm>
295
<para id="nscd_nischeck"><command>nscd_nischeck</command> checks whether or not secure mode
296
is necessary for NIS+ lookup.</para>
297
 
298
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pcprofiledump"><primary sortas="b-pcprofiledump">pcprofiledump</primary></indexterm>
299
<para id="pcprofiledump"><command>pcprofiledump</command> dumps information generated by
300
PC profiling.</para>
301
 
302
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc pt_chown"><primary sortas="b-pt_chown">pt_chown</primary></indexterm>
303
<para id="pt_chown"><command>pt_chown</command> is a helper program for grantpt to set
304
the owner, group and access permissions of a slave pseudo terminal.</para>
305
 
306
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc rpcgen"><primary sortas="b-rpcgen">rpcgen</primary></indexterm>
307
<para id="rpcgen"><command>rpcgen</command> generates C code to implement the
308
RPC protocol.</para>
309
 
310
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc rpcinfo"><primary sortas="b-rpcinfo">rpcinfo</primary></indexterm>
311
<para id="rpcinfo"><command>rpcinfo</command> makes an RPC call to an RPC server.</para>
312
 
313
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sln"><primary sortas="b-sln">sln</primary></indexterm>
314
<para id="sln"><command>sln</command> is used to make symbolic links. The program
315
is statically linked, so it is useful for making symbolic links to dynamic
316
libraries if the dynamic linking system for some reason is nonfunctional.</para>
317
 
318
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc sprof"><primary sortas="b-sprof">sprof</primary></indexterm>
319
<para id="sprof"><command>sprof</command> reads and displays shared object profiling
320
data.</para>
321
 
322
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc tzselect"><primary sortas="b-tzselect">tzselect</primary></indexterm>
323
<para id="tzselect"><command>tzselect</command> asks the user about the location of the
324
system and reports the corresponding time zone description.</para>
325
 
326
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc xtrace"><primary sortas="b-xtrace">xtrace</primary></indexterm>
327
<para id="xtrace"><command>xtrace</command> traces the execution of a program by
328
printing the currently executed function.</para>
329
 
330
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zdump"><primary sortas="b-zdump">zdump</primary></indexterm>
331
<para id="zdump"><command>zdump</command> is the time zone dumper.</para>
332
 
333
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc zic"><primary sortas="b-zic">zic</primary></indexterm>
334
<para id="zic"><command>zic</command> is the time zone compiler.</para>
335
 
336
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc ld.so"><primary sortas="c-ld.so">ld.so</primary></indexterm>
337
<para id="ld.so"><command>ld.so</command> is the helper program for shared library
338
executables.</para>
339
 
340
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libBrokenLocale"><primary sortas="c-libBrokenLocale">libBrokenLocale</primary></indexterm>
341
<para id="libBrokenLocale"><command>libBrokenLocale</command> is used by programs, such as
342
Mozilla, to solve broken locales.</para>
343
 
344
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libSegFault"><primary sortas="c-libSegFault">libSegFault</primary></indexterm>
345
<para id="libSegFault"><command>libSegFault</command> is a segmentation fault signal
346
handler. It tries to catch segfaults.</para>
347
 
348
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libanl"><primary sortas="c-libanl">libanl</primary></indexterm>
349
<para id="libanl"><command>libanl</command> is an asynchronous name lookup
350
library.</para>
351
 
352
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libbsd-compat"><primary sortas="c-libbsd-compat">libbsd-compat</primary></indexterm>
353
<para id="libbsd-compat"><command>libbsd-compat</command> provides the portability needed
354
in order to run certain BSD programs under Linux.</para>
355
 
356
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libc"><primary sortas="c-libc">libc</primary></indexterm>
357
<para id="libc"><command>libc</command> is the main C library -- a collection of
358
commonly used functions.</para>
359
 
360
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libcrypt"><primary sortas="c-libcrypt">libcrypt</primary></indexterm>
361
<para id="libcrypt"><command>libcrypt</command> is the cryptography library.</para>
362
 
363
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libdl"><primary sortas="c-libdl">libdl</primary></indexterm>
364
<para id="libdl"><command>libdl</command> is the dynamic linking interface library.</para>
365
 
366
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libg"><primary sortas="c-libg">libg</primary></indexterm>
367
<para id="libg"><command>libg</command> is a runtime library for g++.</para>
368
 
369
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libieee"><primary sortas="c-libieee">libieee</primary></indexterm>
370
<para id="libieee"><command>libieee</command> is the IEEE floating point library.</para>
371
 
372
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libm"><primary sortas="c-libm">libm</primary></indexterm>
373
<para id="libm"><command>libm</command> is the mathematical library.</para>
374
 
375
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmcheck"><primary sortas="c-libmcheck">libmcheck</primary></indexterm>
376
<para id="libmcheck"><command>libmcheck</command> contains code run at boot.</para>
377
 
378
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libmemusage"><primary sortas="c-libmemusage">libmemusage</primary></indexterm>
379
<para id="libmemusage"><command>libmemusage</command> is used by memusage to help collect
380
information about the memory usage of a program.</para>
381
 
382
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnsl"><primary sortas="c-libnsl">libnsl</primary></indexterm>
383
<para id="libnsl"><command>libnsl</command> is the network services library.</para>
384
 
385
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libnss"><primary sortas="c-libnss*">libnss*</primary></indexterm>
386
<para id="libnss"><command>libnss*</command> are the Name Service Switch libraries,
387
containing functions for resolving host names, user names, group names,
388
aliases, services, protocols,and the like.</para>
389
 
390
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpcprofile"><primary sortas="c-libpcprofile">libpcprofile</primary></indexterm>
391
<para id="libpcprofile"><command>libpcprofile</command> contains profiling functions used
392
to track the amount of CPU time spent in which source code lines.</para>
393
 
394
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libpthread"><primary sortas="c-libpthread">libpthread</primary></indexterm>
395
<para id="libpthread"><command>libpthread</command> is the POSIX threads library.</para>
396
 
397
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libresolv"><primary sortas="c-libresolv">libresolv</primary></indexterm>
398
<para id="libresolv"><command>libresolv</command> contains functions for creating,
399
sending, and interpreting packets to the Internet domain name servers.</para>
400
 
401
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librpcsvc"><primary sortas="c-librpcsvc">librpcsvc</primary></indexterm>
402
<para id="librpcsvc"><command>librpcsvc</command>contains functions providing
403
miscellaneous RPC services.</para>
404
 
405
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc librt"><primary sortas="c-librt">librt</primary></indexterm>
406
<para id="librt"><command>librt</command> contains functions providing most of the
407
interfaces specified by the POSIX.1b Realtime Extension.</para>
408
 
409
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libthread_db"><primary sortas="c-libthread_db">libthread_db</primary></indexterm>
410
<para id="libthread_db"><command>libthread_db</command> contains functions useful for
411
building debuggers for multi-threaded programs.</para>
412
 
413
<indexterm zone="ch-system-glibc libutil"><primary sortas="c-libutil">libutil</primary></indexterm>
414
<para id="libutil"><command>libutil</command> contains code for "standard" functions
415
used in many different Unix utilities.</para>
416
 
417
</sect2>
418
 
419
 
420
 
266 guillaume 421
</sect1>